Although affected by the financial crisis, the stagnation of the development of the surfactant market in South Africa for two years. However, with the 2010 South Africa’s economic recovery, consumer household products, personal care products, demand is increasing, thus promoting the South African market, the surfactant to the rapid development.
Market will reach $ 235 million
In South Africa, surfactants are generally anionic, nonionic, cationic and amphoteric surfactants four types, mainly for the production of household detergent or cleaning supplies, industrial special cleaning supplies, personal care supplies.
Anionic surfactants decontamination ability, commonly used for the production of washing and decontamination products, such as detergent, washing liquid, etc., can well remove the dirt knitwear, fabric softener residue from the other. Nonionic surface active agents are often used to produce oil scavenger, wherein the ether alcohol is most common. The performance of the amphoteric surfactant mild, mainly for the production of personal care products and household cleaning products. Cationic surfactants are mainly used to produce detergents, fabric softeners, and household or bathroom cleaners.
Research report said the global financial crisis, in 2009 the South African market surfactant compared with 2008 increased by only 0.9 per cent, reaching $ 190 million. The report predicts that from 2011 to 2016, the South African market will be 3.1% of the average growth rate in 2016 is expected to reach $ 235 million. Wherein the anionic surfactant and a nonionic surfactant to reach a market share of 69% and 20% , ranked first and second , and amphoteric surfactants and cationic surfactants market share is relatively small , respectively, accounted for only 4.0% and 7.0% respectively.
The four factors promoting the development of the market
Report analysis, surface active agent in South Africa has the following four positive factors of market development.
1, the family consumer goods demand. In the past decade, despite the global economic recession, South Africa's economy still grew by 37.8%. As consumer income increases, people are willing to pay higher prices for quality products, so as to greatly promote the personal care products, household detergents and cleaning products demand.
2, the growth of the healthcare industry. The South African government spent heavily to improve residents' health care system in order to boost demand surfactant growth. Hospital infrastructure and health care facilities is the main surfactant in industry professional application field of end users, extend and improve medical service network to become the most important in the application of the surfactant in industry professional driver, the application area accounts for 20% of the total market share.
3, the requirements of manufacturing formula. Need to use a specific production surfactant formula, formed the time tested formula can ensure the performance of the product. And end user is not very sensitive to the price of the product, they will not according to the price fluctuation to change the demand for their product formula or surfactant.
4, limited types of alternative products. Surfactants are important in consumer products the active ingredient of many properties of the product to reflect mainly through them, so the surface active agent can not be easily replaced. Both worldwide and in the South African market, this is to maintain the growing demand for surfactants key factor.
With the global economic recovery, South Africa surfactant market will keep growing for some time, and this region surfactant demand will continue to promote local manufacturers and distributors of revenue growth.
Cat litter is a well-established production the mature markets of Western Europe, North America and Japan. While a large cat population is the ultimate prerequisite for high value sales of cat litter, other factors also impact demand. In countries with high disposable incomes, and where pet food is a well-established concept, demand for cat litter is comparatively strong.
Urbanisation and the concomitant rise in the number of house-cats also drive demand for cat litter in many countries. The top five in value terms – US, Japan, Germany, UK and France – exhibit these characteristics to varying degrees.
The US has by far the largest cat population, which compensates for the fact that the country lags somewhat in terms of urbanisation. Germany on the other hand has a smaller number of cats, but is, next to the UK, a heavily urbanised country (about 89% of households in the UK and Germany live in urban areas). All five markets are characterised by high levels of personal disposable income, ranking among the top twenty countries worldwide.
Product innovation boosts growth in the US
The US which accounts for about 45% of world cat litter sales, witnessed the introduction of superior-quality products such as clumping and silica gel (crystal) litters, which ensured that cat litter continued to achieve strong growth. A offer better absorption and odour control than conventional cat litter.
Clumping litter, the most common format in the US, is easily scoopable and more convenient to use than traditional products. Furthermore it requires more frequent purchasing, contributing to overall sales growth. Clorox recently introduced Scoop Away Plus Crystals, a product which combines clumping and crystal litters into one product. Innovative product development also kept private labels at bay: The share held by private label products was 16% in 2001, considerably lower than the 28% share held by private label in Western Europe.
To US consumers, product functionality has been and continues to be more appealing than low prices. Consequently, added-value products ensured consistently strong year-on-year growth rates in the US: between 1998 and 2002, cat litter sales grew by over 24%, which translated into an actual increase of nearly US$240 million.
Uses : P-Tert-Butylbenzoic Acid belongs organic synthesis intermediates. P-Tert-Butylbenzoic Acid modifier for the production of alkyd resins , cutting oils , lubricating oil additives, a nucleating agent of polypropylene , stabilizers . With P-Tert-Butylbenzoic Acid modified alkyd resin to improve the performance of the initial gloss, improved durability hue , gloss , speed up the drying time , excellent resistance to chemicals and resistance to soap performance, using the product as an oil additive amine salt , may play a role in improving the performance and rust for the application of the stabilizer , which is barium , sodium, zinc and the like. Metal cutting fluid antioxidants , anti-rust agent in the resin coating , and the production of lubricants .
Production methods: by alkylation of toluene was tert-butyl toluene , and then by oxidation. Consumption of raw materials fixed : toluene 610kg / t, isobutylene 370kg / t.
Packaging: 25 kg plastic-lined bags
Category: flammable solids
Toxicity Rating: poisoning: acute
Flammable hazardous characteristics : case of heat, flame flammable ; thermal decomposition of toxic exhaust fumes spicy
The preparation of P - Tert - Butylbenzoic Acid process
P - Tert - Butylbenzoic Acid preparation technology, whose character is: includes the following steps:
(1), toluene, isobutylene and concentrated sulfuric Acid added to the reaction kettle in alkylation reaction, get the crude products of tertiary butyl toluene, alkylation reaction temperature is 20 to 24 ℃, time for 10 to 12 hours, and then the crude products of tertiary butyl toluene distillation get of tertiary butyl toluene;
(2), will be made for tertiary butyl toluene and composite catalyst into the reaction kettle zhongtong into oxygen oxidation reaction, get a P - Tert - Butylbenzoic raw Acid, reaction temperature is 110-180 ℃, the time is 12-24 hours a day, described in the composite catalyst composed of cobalt acetate and bromide, were added to the reaction kettle;
(3), the P Tert - Butylbenzoic raw Acid cooling crystallization, centrifugal dry, clean with the tertiary butyl toluene, then P Tert - Butylbenzoic raw Acid in toluene, heat to dissolve, add the decolorizing activated carbon, diatomite, and then cooling, crystallization, centrifugal, to P - Tert - Butylbenzoic Acid products;
(4), the P Tert - Butylbenzoic Acid fine after washing, doused with toluene, centrifuge, drying, to P - Tert - Butylbenzoic Acid products.
Silica gel is a highly active inorganic adsorbent material is transparent or white granular solid . Has an open porous structure , strong adsorption , can absorb a variety of substances. Such as moisture absorption , moisture absorption capacity of approximately 40%.
Blue Silicone - such as adding cobalt chloride, cobalt blue when dry , red after absorbing water . Blue Silicone because it contains a small amount of cobalt chloride , toxic, and food should be avoided contact and inhalation of the mouth , such as the occurrence of poisoning should immediately seek medical treatment.
Silica gel in the course of the medium due to the adsorption of water vapor or other organic substances , the adsorption capacity decreased, can be reused after regeneration .
Silica gel regeneration after adsorption of water vapor
Silica gel after moisture absorption, heat by stripping way to remove moisture, there are many types of heating way, such as electric heating furnace, flue waste heat heating and hot air drying, etc.
Stripping heating temperature control in the 120-180 ℃ advisable, for the blue gel indicator, allochroic silica gel, DL blue silica gel is controlled in 100-120 ℃ advisable. All kinds of industrial silica gel regeneration when the highest temperature should not be more than the following limits:
Coarse silica gel is not higher than 600 ℃;
Of fine silica shall not be higher than 200 ℃;
Blue glue index agent (or color silica gel) shall not be higher than 120 ℃;
Silicon aluminum adhesive shall not be higher than 350 ℃.
After the regeneration of silica gel, its general control moisture below 2% can be put into use again.
Silica gel adsorption of organic impurities regeneration
For coarse -pored silica gel , can be placed inside the roaster gradually heated to 500 - 600 ℃, after about 6-8 hours to micelles can be white or brown . On pore silica gel, calcination temperature should not exceed 200 ℃.
⒉ rinsing method
Silica gel adsorption of the saturated water vapor saturated with heat water for rinsing , can be combined with a detergent to remove oils or other organic impurities, and then washed with water after drying dehydration.
⒊ solvent flushing method
According to silica gel adsorption organic species , the choice of an appropriate solvent adsorbed on silica dissolution of organic matter inside , and then heated to remove the solvent silicone .
Silicone regeneration should pay attention to the problems
⒈ drying regeneration should pay attention to grasp the gradual increase in temperature caused by dry particles in order to avoid violent burst , lower recovery rates.
⒉ on silicone baking regeneration, the temperature is too high will cause changes in the pore structure of silica gel significantly reduced the adsorption effect, affecting the value in use . For blue gel indicator or silica gel , desorption regeneration temperature should not exceed 120 ℃, otherwise they will be gradually oxidized color developing agent and lose color effects .
⒊ regenerated after silica fine particles should generally be removed by sieving , to allow uniform particles .
Storage and Packaging
Silicone has a strong capacity to absorb moisture and should therefore be stored in a dry place , between the ground and the packaging have shelves . Packaging with drums , drum , cardboard boxes, plastic bottles, polyethylene plastic bags, flexible container bags and so on. Transport process should avoid rain, moisture and sunlight .
PVA film manufacturing
PVA is only can be bacteria as carbon source and energy use vinyl polymer, under the action of bacteria and enzymes, 46 days 75% biodegradable, belongs to a kind of biodegradable polymer materials, can be made of non-oil route for mass production, the price is low, the oil resistance, solvent resistance and gas barrier performance is outstanding, has unique advantages in terms of food, medicine packaging. Based on the application of PVA solution method, through stretch film preparation of thin film materials, but the dissolved solution processing molding experience and drying process, and there are complex process, high cost and low production faults, it is difficult to the preparation of thick wall, shape of complex products, at the same time, also can't with other materials for composite membrane preparation multi-layer co-extrusion blow molding.
(1) the copolymerization modification, through copolymerization or macromolecular reaction in the main chain or side of the base forces is introduced in the weaker units, less PVA molecules and molecular inter-atomic forces, in lower melting point; Japanese cola li company can be thermoplastic processed PVA was synthesized, the PVA of alpha olefin containing carbon atom number less than 4 units and/or vinyl ether, melting point is 160-230 ℃; Japan synthetic chemical companies to develop AXPVA copolymer film, its processing performance, in 200-210 ℃, melting point processing temperature at 210-230 ℃.
(2) the blending modification, by joining with hydroxyl groups in PVA can generate hydrogen bonding of polymer, PVA molecular inter-atomic forces, lower melting point or raise the thermal decomposition temperature, such as sugar derivatives, collagen hydrolysate etc. Nishino will Poly real sugar derivatives (GEMA) and PVA blend, raise the thermal decomposition temperature, when the addition amount is to 25 wt %, the mixture of thermal decomposition temperature of 326 ℃. Italian Montedison group Novamont company development and production of the most successful PVA/starch composites "MaterBi" brand, composed of modified starch and modified PVA blend interpenetrating polymer network structure plastic alloy, excellent processability, secondary workability, mechanical properties and biodegradability. The company has developed the extrusion molding with slice, blown film, stretch film, injection molding products, hollow container, toys and other products.
(3) after the modification reaction, based on the modification of hydroxy, PVA molecular chain can reduce the neat degree of PVA and improve the thermal stability of the unit structure, improve the performance of thermoplastic processing on the PVA. Nishimura, studies have shown that alkyl boric acid complex compound can effectively reduce the melting temperature and decomposition temperature of PVA, realize the melt spinning.
(4) plasticizing modification, this method is simple, efficient, domestic and foreign research on plasticizing is more, such as Japanese cola company, Japan synthetic chemical company, the United States dupont, sichuan vinylon factory, sichuan university, Beijing university of chemical industry and business university, south China university of technology, Beijing, and other units with water, inorganic salt, glycerin, polyol and its oligomers, caprolactam, alcohol amine (single or composite plasticizing modifier, reduce the melting point of PVA, improve processing flow
hydrazine monohydrate is a colorless, fuming and basic solution with a peculiar bad smell, soluble in water and alcohol, insoluble in chloroform and ethyl ether, flammable and corroding glass, rubber and leather, hydrazine hydrate's severe toxicity accumulates and harms blood and nerves
Hydrazine hydrate and its derivative products are widely used in many industrial applications, such as chemical products, pharmaceutical products, agricultural products, water treatment, used as reducing agents, antioxidants, such as photography and photographic products, used in the production of pharmaceuticals, foaming agent and so on.
Hydrazine can be directly used :
1 thermal and nuclear power plants as a circulating water corrosion additives.
(2) industrial boilers and high pressure steam oven water oxygen scavenger . Hydrazine hydrate is a deoxidizer , which enables reduction of dissolved oxygen in the water , boiler feed water is used to further remove the residue after thermal oxygen by trace dissolved oxygen. Because for dissolved oxygen can cause corrosion of boiler tubes . The boiler feedwater hydrazine hydrate , not only oxygen, but also to prevent fouling of iron and copper boiler scale formation .
Hydrazine is a highly reducing agent , can be synthesized by the following products:
1 foaming agent : azodicarbonamide ( azo -carboxamide ) ( eg : for the production of tubes with sodium azide product ) .
(2) agricultural products and pharmaceutical products in the synthesis of biologically active intermediates , first generation triazole.
3 Azo initiators
4 various other products: The dye certain organic pigments , photographic reagents aspect , urethane and acrylic products, and products cyanide bromate
Hydrazine can also be applied in the following areas :
1 of precious metals cleaning, refining.
2 pickling and surface treatment of metal was recovered .
3 . Handling waste and emissions.
4 for use in the electronics market various grades of sulfuric acid refined purification .
5 of plastic and metal ( nickel, cobalt, iron , chromium, etc. ) of a metal inlay.
6 is a rocket fuel formulations.
7 In the ACTIRED used in the process , the process is mainly used in gold processing .
As a bifunctional hydrazine group and a nucleophilic group , it can produce a variety of derivative products, such as :
1. LIOZAN: Anti- corrosion products , can provide rapid oxygen capacity, and can be effective at lower temperatures .
2 hydrazine salt : three kinds of products, mainly for the synthesis of intermediates ( particularly in the pharmaceutical industry ) .
3 triazole products: 1,2,4 - triazole / 1,2,4 - triazole sodium salt / 4 - amino-1 ,2,4 - triazole / 3, - amino-1 ,2,4 - three azole .
4 aminoguanidine bicarbonate.
TongJiu Hydrazine Hydrate Industry Co., Ltd
Add:Xinhua West Road 10#, NanJing City, China
White flaky crystals, generally dihydrate crystals , soluble in water (20 ℃ when 67g, 80 ℃ when 260g), soluble in methanol , slightly soluble in most organic solvents . 20g / L solution of pH = 8-10. Melting point > 300 ℃, flash point > 500 ℃. Generally consists of toluene as raw material, sulfonated , get p-toluenesulfonic acid , and then the system Ionic and crude, bleaching, concentrated and crystallized from experience finished ; also by hydrolysis of p-toluenesulfonyl chloride ( hydrolysis temperature must be strictly controlled to prevent the red material ; alkaline hydrolysis conditions , the temperature increase at the rate of hydrolysis accelerating. room temperature hydrolysis is slow , 50 ℃ significantly faster than the hydrolysis
In medicine for the synthesis of doxycycline, dipyridamole, naproxen, and for the production of amoxicillin, cefadroxil intermediates.
For the chemical industry and synthetic detergent slurry conditioning agent. Equipped in the synthetic detergent into the goods, detergent can reach the Ministry of standard indicators , but also from the four roles:
( 1) Can reduce the viscosity of the slurry , the slurry to improve mobility, dusting convenient , reduce energy consumption , thereby increasing production capacity.
( 2 ) can increase the water content of the aqueous detergent 2-4 %, reduce costs.
( 3 ) can promote the detergent sodium in five hydration, anti-caking quickly improve detergent performance, improve product quality.
( 4 ) to reduce the loss of dusting powder tower exhaust volume , reduce pollution and increase production
P-Toluene Aulfonic Acid supplier &www.p-toluenesulfonicacid-ptbba.com ---Nanjing Jianci Chemical Plant Co.,Ltd covers an area of 50,000 square meters with the registered capital of RMB 100 million. Our products mainly involve two series: series of Para-Toluenesulfonic Acid and Para-Tert-Butyl Benzoic Acid.
Series of 4-Toluene Aulfonic Acid: P-Toluenesulfonic Acid PTSA, P -Toluene Sulfonic Acid 65% water solution, Sodium P-Toluene Sulfonate, Sodium Xylene Sulphonate and its main raw materials. Series of 4-Tert-Butyl Benzoic Acid: P-Tert-Butyl Benzoic Acid PTBBA, P-Tert-Butyltoluene PTBT and Methyl P-Tert-Butyl Benzoate.
Customers both at home and abroad are welcomed to come for business negotiation, investment and economy cooperation. We pursue the goal of serving customers utmost, as well as the spirit of "Quality first, customer first, reputation above all”
A common classification of surfactants is based on the surfactant dissolved in the case of the charge carried by the water , divided into ionic and non-ionic two categories, while ionic surfactants may also be further divided into cationic, anionic, amphoteric three categories , as follows:
A surfactant can significantly lower the surface tension of water to reduce the level within a certain concentration range , the surfactant concentration dependent , when the concentration reaches a certain value , the surface tension of the solution no longer decreased. The surface tension of the solution reaches the desired concentration of the lowest minimum value known as the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Different surfactants with different critical micelle concentration , surfactant concentration used should tare greater than the critical micelle concentration , in order to fully play its role .
Benzene sulfonate (ABS): is the main component of household detergents , acid and hard water , decontamination capabilities are better.
Diffusion agent NN0: multi- staining dye used as a dispersing agent .
(2) the nonionic surfactant:
Penetrant JFC (EA) lift and wetting agent, acid and alkali resistance, to hard water stability, drift in practice for desizing agent, pickling, bleaching, etc.
Peregal0: strong proliferation ability, are used for dyeing and printing. Anionic surfactant and cationic surfactant with bath use, otherwise will be combined with each other and each other. For other cationic auxiliaries and dyes, with bath will also result in dyeing defects. On the other hand, cationic surfactant, generally can't bath with additives, dyes with anion. But in ionic surfactant and nonionic surfactant can be used with bath. By the rapid development of the surfactant, breed is various, should choose best when printing and dyeing processing surface active agent, in order to improve the quality of printing and dyeing products.
Sinopec Jinling Petrochemical Co.,Ltd is mainly involved in research and production of surfactant and washing chemicals.Main products of the company: Series of Powdered LAS, HLAS, K12, AOS, DSB, APG and so on, among which series of powdered LAS products dominate the domestic market. In addition, the company is also involved in engineering design, revamp & expansion, technical consulting and service for synthetic detergent spray drying unit and membrane sulfur trioxide sulfonation unit. The company is also able to offer technology of multi-tube and membrane sulfonating reactor which was proprietarily developed by itself and have been commercially applied in production of LAS, HLAS, BLAS, K12, AES and MES.
In the 21st century, China’s consumption structure of hydrazine hydrate as: pesticides accounted for 40% of the total share, blowing agents accounted for 30% of water treatment chemicals accounted for 14% accounted for a percentage of the other the thirteen. At present, China is far lower than the foreign hydrazine hydrate production capacity; still can not meet domestic market needs. Therefore, the development of domestic production capacity of hydrazine hydrate and advanced production technology has enormous economic and far-reaching social benefits.
Currently, Japan, South Korea, the United States and France have a larger hydrazine hydrate production capacity, while demand in these countries is limited; it has a strong export capacity. The steady growths in demand of hydrazine hydrate, and gradually become an important global consumer market. Japan and South Korea hydrazine hydrate are mainly exported to China, the United States and France are also optimistic about China's market.
The current production technology of hydrazine hydrate
Now the production of hydrazine hydrate in China is mainly used in the urea method.
The main is a bit of urea is low investment. The operation is simple, device does not need too much, and now the domestic hydrazine hydrate is small-scale production, is one of the most economical production methods. The urea method in our country has been a long time now, almost all companies are using this method, the synthetic yield higher than raschig process. However, due to the use of high raw material prices compared to other methods, it is in mass production, it can not compete with other methods; this method has been largely foreign to be eliminated. Although many domestic enterprises have done a lot of urea method of technological innovation , but taking into account many of the shortcomings of its existence , so many domestic producers is both the production of urea and production of hydrazine hydrate . So now the Chinese urea method is very suitable for the current situation.
About low cost of raw materials Raschig process, in the production of large scale, the total cost than Urea is low, but the Act pollution, high energy consumption and equipment investment, at home and abroad have been very few manufacturers to adopt the methods of production.
Hydrogen peroxide method with Raschig process and ketone of method of economical comparison mainly depends on the relative price of chlorine, sodium hydroxide. The yield can reach 75%, if there is a cheap source of hydrogen peroxide, which is very attractive. But domestic technology is not mature and widely used.
Ketazine method has significant advantages, as ketazine production to avoid the decomposition of hydrazine, yields were close to the theoretical value, and the energy consumption is about Rasi law 1/3. In one method, azine, hydrazine as a ketazine and water to form a low boiling azeotrope is removed from the top, leaving the rest of the water and salt in the tower kettle.
Rasi law hydrazine with water to form high-boiling azeotrope exists in the bottom, a lot of water to be evaporated . And in order to prevent the precipitation of salt tower reactor, but also need to pre- evaporation desalination, so energy consumption. In the energy crisis, prices circumstances, ketazine of energy saving advantage is particularly important. In addition, investments in equipment ketazine France lower than Raschig process. The disadvantage ketazine product to processor and consume acetone. But in general, ketazine method is superior to Raschig process, developed rapidly in recent years.
Now, with the continuous development of the country, for the future of the chemical industry, hydrazine hydrate products demand will continue to increase, domestic technology in the future will adopt efficient ketazine France. Urea society will eventually come out of the stage.
Desiccant silica gel moisture permeability is small bag packaging of different varieties of silica gel, the main raw material high silica gel is a kind of micro pore structure of hydrated silica, non-toxic, tasteless, odorless, stable chemical properties, with a strong moisture absorption performance, is a highly active adsorption material. Usually is to use sodium silicate and sulfuric acid reaction, and the aging, acid soak and a series of post-processing process and system.
Medicine, machinery, optical electronics, precision instruments, meters, seeds, processed food, tea, all kinds of chemical fiber textile, leather shoes, leather, shoes, and cultural relic archives, cameras, arts and crafts, such as all items need to moistureproof mildew, application is very extensive. Specify the following
1, silica gel desiccant can be used for bottled medical, food, moistureproof. To ensure that the content items dry, to prevent the growth of a variety of miscellaneous mold.
2, silica gel desiccant can be used as a general packaging desiccant. Such as bags, clothing, shoes and hats, leather, etc., to prevent the goods due to be affected with damp be affected with damp during storage or transportation affect the quality of the product.
3, silica gel desiccant can be conveniently placed in the electronic products, instruments and meters, household appliances, mechanical equipment, and other products, to prevent the goods because of be affected with damp be affected with damp and affect the quality of the product.
4, silica gel desiccant can be placed in the transport of the container, and prevent the formation of container rain.
5, silica gel desiccant is most suited to the moisture absorption of the environment for the room temperature (20 ~ 32 ℃), high temperature (60 ~ 90 ℃), it can reduce the environmental relative humidity around 40%, so the desiccant application scope is very broad.
Make environmental relative humidity is reduced to about 40%, so the desiccant application range is very wide.
Cat litter silica is a highly active adsorption material, usually is to use sodium silicate and sulfuric acid reaction, and the aging, acid soak and a series of post-processing process and system. Silica gel is amorphous material; its chemical formula is mSiO2. NH2o. Insoluble in water and any solvents, non-toxic tasteless, stable chemical properties, in addition to the strong alkali, hydrofluoric acid does not react with any material.
1, adsorption ability, absorption speed.
2, easy to use, less waste, easy to clean.
3, consumption saving, and the economy.
4, the use of safe, green environmental protection product.
5, beautiful and easy, easy to accepted by pet.
6, to eliminate dust, make no dust around the floor.
7, more health, inhibit bacteria growth, make the environment more health.
8, deodorant, strong by absorbing moisture in the form of to prevent the spread of the smell